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  • Vous respirez et mangez du plastique

    Environnement

    Vous respirez et mangez du plastique

    12 juin 2019 23:00

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    Cette nouvelle étude canadienne estime qu’un adulte peut ingérer annuellement jusqu’à 52 000 microparticules de plastique. Pire encore, lorsque la pollution de l’air est prise en compte, ce volume dépasse 120 000 particules par an, sans que nous ayons connaissance de leurs effets sur notre santé.Le plastique est présent partout, des emballages alimentaires aux vêtements synthétiques, en passant par… notre organisme. C’est la conclusion particulièrement inquiétante à laquelle sont parvenus des chercheurs de l’Université de Victoria, après avoir analysé 26 études portant sur le mode de consommation des Américains. Ainsi, un homme adulte pourra ingérer des dizaines de milliers de microparticules plastiques chaque année, sachant que ce nombre variera en fonction de son mode de vie. Leurs travaux ont été présentés dans la revue Environmental Science and Technology.

    Le simple fait de s’alimenter entrainerait annuellement l’ingestion de 39 000 à 52 000 microparticules plastiques, auxquelles s’ajouteraient 90 000 microparticules supplémentaires pour les personnes consommant de l’eau en bouteille (une étude américaine avait précédemment estimé que 93 % des bouteilles d’eau analysées contenaient plus de 10 particules de 0,1 millimètre par litre d’eau). Extrêmement volatiles, ces microparticules sont également présentes dans l’air que nous respirons, et notre inhalation régulière ferait passer le nombre de particules présentes dans notre organisme de 74 000 à 121 000.

    Les auteurs de l’étude précisent par ailleurs que seulement 15 % de l’apport calorique annuel d’un Américain moyen était pris en compte pour ces calculs, ce qui sous-entend que leurs résultats sont probablement bien en dessous de la réalité. Pour l’heure, les effets de l’ingestion de ce type de microparticules sur notre santé restent très mal connus des scientifiques. Selon François Hubert, expert en toxicologie, les microparticules présentes dans les bouteilles d’eau seraient trop grandes (100 microns) pour être absorbées par notre système digestif et se retrouveraient par conséquent intactes dans nos selles.

    Un constat que ne partagent pas les chercheurs canadiens à l’origine de l’étude, qui précisent que certaines des microparticules analysées seraient « assez petites pour entrer dans les tissus humains, où elles pourraient entraîner une réaction immunitaire ou relâcher des substances toxiques ». Pour Alastair Grant, professeur d’écologie à l’Université d’East Anglia, rien ne permet d’affirmer que ces microparticules plastiques représentent « un danger significatif » pour notre santé. Il estime par ailleurs que seule « une petite partie des éléments inhalés » pourrait effectivement atteindre les poumons, en raison de leur taille.

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